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Category E species

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Species recorded as introductions, human-assisted transportees or escapees from captivity, and whose breeding populations (if any) are thought not to be self-sustaining. Species in Category E that have bred in the wild in Britain are designated as E*.

Category E species form no part of the British List (unless already included within Categories A, B or C).

This list has been compiled mostly from county/regional bird reports and other published listings, and is not exhaustive.

BOURC is unable to vouch for correct identification of these species, or the circumstances in which they were recorded; clearly doubtful cases have been excluded, however, pending enquiries, along with species not recorded with certainty since 1 January 1950.

Species of which Category E individuals are recorded as nesting with their own kind, and known or presumed to have originated from a captive origin, are marked with an asterisk (E*). Also given are any other categories of the British List in which the species is currently placed.

The BOU is responsible for maintaining the British List. Part of this responsibility is to monitor the occurrence of non-native species which may qualify for addition to Category C of the British List. To undertake this we require published information from which to work and which we can quote as reference.

The BOU encourages all observers to report records of non-native species to the relevant local bird recorder. Local recorders and those producing local, county or regional publications are encouraged to publish these records and to make these records available to the Rare Breeding Birds Panel (RBBP) who publish an annual report of non-native species breeding in Britain each year in British Birds (see below).

English names follow: Gill, F & D Donsker (Eds). 2011. IOC World Bird Names (version 2.10). Available at www.worldbirdnames.org [accessed 23/12/11]

Ref - this refers to the first Rare Breeding Birds Panel (RBBP) report the species was included (for reports of breeding birds or birds recorded in suitable habitat during the breeding season) and other key updates in subsequent RBBP reports and other key references. RBBP reports are listed at the foot of this page.


Category E species

Common Ostrich Struthio camelus E

Helmeted Guineafowl Numida meleagris E* Ref. 3

Mountain Quail Oreortyx pictus E

Snow Partridge Lerwa lerwa E

Rock Partridge Alectoris graeca E

Chukar Partridge Alectoris chukar E*

Barbary Partridge Alectoris barbara E

Red-legged Partridge Alectoris rufa CE*

Grey Partridge Perdix perdix ACE*

Northern Bobwhite Colinus virginianus E

Common Quail Coturnix coturnix AE*

Japanese Quail Coturnix japonica E

Red Junglefowl Gallus gallus E

Silver Pheasant Lophura nycthemera E*

Blue Eared Pheasant Crossoptilon auritum E

Reeves’s Pheasant Syrmaticus reevesii E*

Common Pheasant Phasianus colchicus CE*

Green Pheasant Phasianus versicolor E Ref. 1

Golden Pheasant Chrysolophus pictus CE*

Lady Amherst’s Pheasant Chrysolophus amherstiae CE*

Wild Turkey Meleagris gallopavo E*

Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus E* Ref. 3

Black Grouse Lyrurus tetrix AE

Fulvous Whistling Duck Dendrocygna bicolor E

Lesser Whistling Duck Dendrocygna javanica E

White-faced Whistling Duck Dendrocygna viduata E

Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis CE*

White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala DE

Maccoa Duck Oxyura maccoa E

Black-headed Duck Heteronetta atricapilla E

Black Swan Cygnus atratus E*

Black-necked Swan Cygnus melanocoryphus E

Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus AE*

Trumpeter Swan Cygnus buccinator E*

Coscoroba Swan Coscoroba coscoroba E

Swan Goose Anser cygnoides E* Ref. 12

Pink-footed Goose Anser brachyrhynchus AE*

Bean Goose Anser fabalis AE* Ref. 11

Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons AE*

Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus AE*

Greylag Goose Anser anser ACE*

Bar-headed Goose Anser indicus E*

Snow Goose Chen caerulescens ACE*

Ross’s Goose Chen rossii DE*

Emperor Goose Chen canagica E*

Canada Goose Branta canadensis E

Cackling Goose Branta hutchinsii E

Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis ACE*

Brant Goose Branta bernicla AE

Red-breasted Goose Branta ruficollis AE*

Cape Barren Goose Cereopsis novaehollandiae E

Blue-winged Goose Cyanochen cyanoptera E

Upland Goose Chloephaga picta E*

Orinoco Goose Neochen jubata E

Egyptian Goose Alopochen aegyptiaca CE*

Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea BE*

South African Shelduck Tadorna cana E*

Australian Shelduck Tadorna tadornoides E

Paradise Shelduck Tadorna variegata E

Raja Shelduck Tadorna radjah E

Muscovy Duck Cairina moschata E*

Comb Duck Sarkidiornis sylvicola E

Ringed Teal Callonetta leucophrys E

Wood Duck Aix sponsa E*

Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata CE*

Maned Duck Chenonetta jubata E

Cape Teal Anas capensis E

Falcated Duck Anas falcata DE

Eurasian Wigeon Anas penelope AE*

American Wigeon Anas americana AE

Chiloe Wigeon Anas sibilatrix E

Mallard Anas platyrhynchos ACE*

Philippine Duck Anas luzonica E

Yellow-billed Duck Anas undulata E

Blue-winged Teal Anas discors AE*

Cinnamon Teal Anas cyanoptera E*

Red Shoveler Anas platalea E

Australasian Shoveler Anas rhynchotis E

Chestnut Teal Anas castanea E

White-cheeked Pintail Anas bahamensis E

Red-billed Teal Anas erythrorhyncha E

Speckled Teal Anas flavirostris E* Ref. 12

Northern Pintail Anas acuta AE

Yellow-billed Pintail Anas georgica E

Baikal Teal Anas formosa ADE

Silver Teal Anas versicolor E

Puna Teal Anas puna E

Hottentot Teal Anas hottentota E

Marbled Duck Marmaronetta angustirostris DE

Red-crested Pochard Netta rufina ACE*

Rosy-billed Pochard Netta peposaca E

Common Pochard Aythya ferina AE*

Canvasback Aythya valisineria AE

Redhead Aythya americana AE

Ring-necked Duck Aythya collaris AE

Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca AE

Baer’s Pochard Aythya baeri E

New Zealand Scaup Aythya novaeseelandiae E

Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula AE*

Barrow’s Goldeneye Bucephala islandica E

Bufflehead Bucephala albeola AE

Hooded Merganser Lophodytes cucullatus DE

Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus DE

Chilean Flamingo Phoenicopterus chilensis E

Lesser Flamingo Phoeniconaias minor E

Yellow-billed Stork Mycteria ibis E

Black Stork Ciconia nigra AE

White Stork Ciconia ciconia AE

Scarlet Ibis Eudocimus ruber E

Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus AE

Puna Ibis Plegadis ridgwayi E

Buff-necked Ibis Theristicus caudatus E

Sacred Ibis Threskiornis aethiopicus E

Straw-necked Ibis Threskiornis spinicollis E

Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia AE

African Spoonbill Platalea alba E

Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis AE

Chinese Pond Heron Ardeola bacchus E

Black-crowned Night Heron Nycticorax nycticorax AE*

Yellow Bittern Ixobrychus sinensis E

Red-billed Tropicbird Phaethon aethereus AE

Great White Pelican Pelecanus onocrotalus DE

Pink-backed Pelican Pelecanus rufescens E

Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus E

Double-crested Cormorant Phalacrocorax auritus AE

Black Vulture Coragyps atratus E

Turkey Vulture Cathartes aura E

Northern Crested Caracara Caracara cheriway E

American Kestrel Falco sparverius AE

Amur Falcon Falco amurensis AE

Lanner Falcon Falco biarmicus E

Laggar Falcon Falco jugger E

Saker Falcon Falco cherrug DE

Gyr Falcon Falco rusticolus AE

Prairie Falcon Falco mexicanus E

Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus AE

Barbary Falcon Falco pelegrinoides E

Red Kite Milvus milvus ACE*

Black Kite Milvus migrans AE

Pallas’s Fish Eagle Haliaeetus leucoryphus E

White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla ACE*

Bald Eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus DE

Egyptian Vulture Neophron percnopterus DE

White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis E

Indian Vulture Gyps indicus E

Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus E

White-backed Vulture Gyps africanus E

Rüppell’s Vulture Gyps rueppellii E

Bateleur Terathopius ecaudatus E

Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis ACE*

Harris’s Hawk Parabuteo unicinctus E* Ref. 10

Red-shouldered Hawk Buteo lineatus E

Red-tailed Hawk Buteo jamaicensis E

Rufous-tailed Hawk Buteo ventralis E

Common Buzzard Buteo buteo AE

Tawny Eagle Aquila rapax E

Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos AE

Booted Eagle Hieraaetus pennatus DE

Osprey Pandion haliaetus AE*

Purple Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio E

Grey Crowned Crane Balearica regulorum E

Demoiselle Crane Anthropoides virgo E

Common Crane Grus grus AE*

Sarus Crane Grus antigone E

Peruvian Thick-knee Burhinus superciliaris E

Snowy Sheathbill Chionis albus E

Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta E

Spur-winged Lapwing Vanellus spinosus E

Blacksmith Lapwing Vanellus armatus E

Grey-hooded Gull Larus cirrocephalus E

Silver Gull Larus novaehollandiae E

Common Pigeon Columba livia ACE*

Speckled Pigeon Columba guinea E

Laughing Dove Streptopelia senegalensis E

Red Turtle Dove Streptopelia tranquebarica E

Namaqua Dove Oena capensis E

Crested Pigeon Octophaps lophotes E

Diamond Dove Geopelia cuneata E

Zebra Dove Geopelia striata E

Sulphur-crested Cockatoo Cacatua galerita E

Cockatiel Nymphicus hollandicus E

Crimson Rosella Platycercus elegans E

White-cheeked Rosella Platycercus adscitus E

Red-fronted Parakeet Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae E

Budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus E*

Grey Parrot Psittacus erithacus E

Senegal Parrot Poicephalus senegalus E

Red-headed Lovebird Agapornis pullarius E

Rosy-faced Lovebird Agapornis roseicollis E* Ref. 10

Red-rumped Parrot Psephotus haematonotus E

Alexandrine Parakeet Psittacula eupatria E*

Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri CE*

Plum-headed Parakeet Psittacula cyanocephala E

Red-breasted Parakeet Psittacula alexandri E

Scarlet Macaw Ara macao E

Blue-crowned Parakeet Aratinga acuticaudata E* Ref. 1

Red-masked Parakeet Aratinga erythrogenys E

Burrowing Parrot Cyanoliseus patagonus E

Monk Parakeet Myiopsitta monachus E*

Turquoise-fronted Amazon Amazona aestiva E

Violet Turaco Musophaga violacea E

Barn Owl Tyto alba AE*

Great Horned Owl Bubo virginianus E

Eurasian Eagle-Owl Bubo bubo E*

Snowy Owl Bubo scandiaca AE

Laughing Kookaburra Dacelo novaeguineae E

White-fronted Bee-eater Merops bullockoides E

Northern Carmine Bee-eater Merops nubicus E

Eurasian Hoopoe Upupa epops AE

Toco Toucan Ramphastos toco E

Channel-billed Toucan Ramphastos vitellinus E

Northern Flicker Colaptes auratus E

Southern Grey Shrike Lanius meridionalis AE

Black-whiskered Vireo Vireo altiloquus E

Black-naped Oriole Oriolus chinensis E

African Golden Oriole Oriolus auratus E

Blue Jay Cyanocitta cristata E

Azure-winged Magpie Cyanopica cyanus E

Red-billed Blue Magpie Urocissa erythrorhyncha E

Red-billed Chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax AE

White-necked Raven Corvus albicollis E

Bohemian Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus AE

Japanese Waxwing Bombycilla japonica E

Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica AE

Desert Lark Ammomanes deserti E

Crested Lark Galerida cristata AE

Red-whiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus E

Light-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus sinensis E

Red-vented Bulbul Pycnonotus cafer E

Sooty-headed Bulbul Pycnonotus aurigaster E

Red-billed Leiothrix Leiothrix lutea E

Dusky Fulvetta Alcippe brunnea E

Vinous-throated Parrotbill Paradoxornis webbianus E

Chestnut-flanked White-eye Zosterops erythropleurus E

Oriental White-eye Zosterops palpebrosus E

Japanese White-eye Zosterops japonicus E

Northern Mockingbird Mimus polyglottos AE

Wattled Starling Creatophora cinerea E

Purple Starling Lamprotornis purpureus E

Greater Blue-eared Starling Lamprotornis chalybaeus E

Superb Starling Lamprotornis superbus

Red-billed Starling Spodiopsar sericeus E

Brahminy Starling Sturnus pagodarum E

Daurian Starling Agropsar sturninus DE

White-shouldered Starling Sturnus sinensis E

Rosy Starling Sturnus roseus AE

White-cheeked Starling Sturnus cineraceus E

Pied Myna Sturnus contra E

Crested Myna Acridotheres cristatellus E

Common Hill Myna Gracula religiosa E

Siberian Thrush Zoothera sibirica AE

Black-breasted Thrush Turdus dissimilis E

Kessler’s Thrush Turdus kessleri E

American Robin Turdus migratorius AE

Blue Rock Thrush Monticola solitarius AE

Rufous-gorgeted Flycatcher Ficedula strophiata E

Red-flanked Bluetail Tarsiger cyanurus AE

Daurian Redstart Phoenicurus auroreus E

White-capped Redstart Chaimarrornis leucocephalus E

Scarlet-chested Sunbird Chalcomitra senegalensis E

Variable Sunbird Cinnyris venustus E

Somali Sparrow Passer castanopterus E

Sudan Golden Sparrow Passer luteus E

Taveta Weaver Ploceus castaneiceps E

Vitelline Masked Weaver Ploceus vitellinus E

Village Weaver Ploceus cucullatus E

Black-headed Weaver Ploceus melanocephalus E

Red-headed Weaver Anaplectes rubriceps E

Red-billed Quelea Quelea quelea E

Fire-fronted Bishop Euplectes diadematus E

Black-winged Red Bishop Euplectes hordeaceus E

Southern Red Bishop Euplectes orix E

White-winged Widowbird Euplectes albonotatus E

Long-tailed Widowbird Euplectes progne E

Lavender Waxbill Estrilda caerulescens E

Crimson-rumped Waxbill Estrilda rhodopyga E

Black-rumped Waxbill Estrilda troglodytes E

Red Avadavat Amandava amandava E

Zebra Finch Taeniopygia guttata E

Long-tailed Finch Poephila acuticauda E

Indian Silverbill Lonchura malabarica E

White-rumped Munia Lonchura striata E

Scaly-breasted Munia Lonchura punctulata E

Black-headed Munia Lonchura malacca E

White-headed Munia Lonchura maja E

Pin-tailed Whydah Vidua macroura E

Common Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs AE

Red-fronted Serin Serinus pusillus E

White-winged Snowfinch Montifringilla nivalis E

Atlantic Canary Serinus canaria E*

Yellow-crowned Canary Serinus flavivertex E

American Goldfinch Carduelis tristis E

Yellow-fronted Canary Crithagra mozambica E

Trumpeter Finch Bucanetes githaginea AE

Desert Finch Rhodospiza obsoleta E

Long-tailed Rosefinch Uragus sibiricus E

Pallas’s Rosefinch Carpodacus roseus E

Pine Grosbeak Pinicola enucleator AE

Yellow-billed Grosbeak Eophona migratoria E

Japanese Grosbeak Eophona personata E

Northern Parula Parula americana AE

Magnolia Warbler Dendroica magnolia AE

Blackpoll Warbler Dendroica striata AE

American Redstart Setophaga ruticilla AE

Baltimore Oriole Icterus galbula AE

Yellow-headed Blackbird Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus DE

Yellow-hooded Blackbird Chrysomus icterocephalus E

Red-winged Blackbird Agelaius phoeniceus E

Ortolan Bunting Emberiza hortulana AE

Black-headed Bunting Emberiza melanocephala AE

Red-headed Bunting Emberiza bruniceps DE

Black-faced Bunting Emberiza spodocephala AE

Yellow-throated Bunting Emberiza elegans E

Song Sparrow Melospiza melodia AE

Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis E

White-throated Sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis AE

White-crowned Sparrow Zonotrichia leucophrys AE

Dark-eyed Junco Junco hyemalis AE

Spotted Towhee Pipilo maculatus E

Red-crested Cardinal Paroaria coronata E

Common Diuca Diuca diuca E

Saffron Yellow Finch Sicalis flaveola E

Black-headed Grosbeak Pheucticus melanocephalus E

Northern Cardinal Cardinalis cardinalis E

Lazuli Bunting Passerina amoena E

Indigo Bunting Passerina cyanea AE

Varied Bunting Passerina versicolor E

Painted Bunting Passerina ciris E

Orange-breasted Bunting Passerina leclancherii E



The following species has been recorded from the Isle of Man, but not since 2005.

Red-winged Laughing-thrush Garrulax formosus E* (Refs. 6, 8, 12)



1. Ogilvie, M. and the Rare Breeding Birds Panel. 1999. Non-natives Report for 1996. British Birds 92: 176-182

2. Ogilvie, M. and the Rare Breeding Birds Panel. 1999. Non-natives Report for 1997. British Birds 92: 472-476

3. Ogilvie, M. and the Rare Breeding Birds Panel. 2000. Non-natives Report for 1998. British Birds 93: 428-433

4. Ogilvie, M. and the Rare Breeding Birds Panel. 2001. Non-natives Report for 1999. British Birds 94: 518-522

5. Ogilvie, M. and the Rare Breeding Birds Panel. 2002. Non-natives Report for 2000. British Birds 95: 631-635

6. Ogilvie, M. and the Rare Breeding Birds Panel. 2003. Rare Non-natives Report for 2001. British Birds 96: 620-625

7. Ogilvie, M. and the Rare Breeding Birds Panel. 2004. Rare Non-natives Report for 2002. British Birds 97: 633-637

8. Dudley, S.P. 2005. Changes to Category C of the British List. Ibis 147: 803-820.

9. Holling, M. and the Rare Breeding Birds Panel. 2007. Rare Non-natives Report for 2003-04. British Birds 100: 321-367.

10. Holling, M. and the Rare Breeding Birds Panel. 2011. Non-native breeding birds in the United Kingdom in 2006, 2007 and 2008. British Birds 104: 114-138.

11. Taylor, M. & Marchant, J.H. 2011. The Norfolk Bird Atlas. BTO Books, Thetford.

12. Holling, M. and the Rare Breeding Birds Panel. 2014. Non-native breeding birds in the UK, 2009-11. British Birds 107: 122-141.

Updated 04-Mar-2014

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